As a powerful organization, the state has greater validity than that of the political parties. From the point of view of validity, political parties are weaker than the state. However, they control the state affair. On the other hand, political parties have capacity to strengthen or weaken the state power. Thus, these two components should be studied simultaneously. In this context, the nature of state and political party sounds similar to some extent.
Now, let’s discuss the nature and essential components of the state and the political party:
i. State is a natural community.
ii. State is called political community.
iii. State is established for human development and human welfare.
iv. State can either be small or big.
v. It utilizes the legitimate power.
vi. The population, the geography, the government and the sovereignty are four elements of a state.
i. A political party is a natural community.
ii. A political party is called political community.
iii. A political party is established for human development and welfare.
iv. A political party can be small or big.
v. A political party exercises legitimate power.
vi. The specific principle, leaders, cadres, followers are four components of a political party.
The above mentioned nature and elements of state and political parties are similar. They differ only on their elements. From this reason too, both state and political party should be equally valued.
Let us visualize their nature and elements in figure:
The above chart describe the natural and essential components of state and political party. Discussion about state and political party has been done in other sections as well. But it is necessary to study political party in relation to anticorruptology. Thus, importance of four elements (i.e. specific principles, leaders, cadres, followers) of political party in study is discussed as follows.
In this section, we discuss the importance of four elements of political party. For the stability of political party, it needs to have the following four elements:
a. Specific principles of the party.
b. Leaders to run the party,
c. Cadres to run the party.
d. Followers to support the party.
Among these four elements, if one element becomes deficient, the party can’t run smoothly. The political party can be fully successful only if the entire four elements become strong.
a. Specific principle of the party:
A political party is formed with specific principles. Political parties in the world are formed with different principles. Those parties are democratic either conventional or modern. Under modern democracy, the parties are either parliamentary, socialist or communist or radical communist and/or so on. All the political parties are guided by certain political philosophy. They must not divert from their philosophy.
b. Leaders to run the party:
The leaders, who run the political party, are the pioneers of the political philosophy that guides the party. The leaders should be disciplined, ascetic, unselfish, moral and also virtuous. If the leaders become immoral, selfish, corrupt, they harm not only the party but also the state itself. The state becomes a failure where such leaders exist. Virtue of leaders is related to the purification of the party. A political party is strong when it is run by virtuous leaders.
c. Cadres to run the party:
There is great importance of cadres in a political party. The cadres are the main element of a political party. The fundamental basis of a party is its cadres. A party becomes strong with the activities of its cadres. Cadres are the followers of a particular party. They are active to strengthen and promote the party. As different organs are required to smoothly run human body, so the cadres are essential to run the party. If the cadres become selfish, corrupt and opportunist they harm their party. The political cadres should be devoted, faithful, disciplined, moral and virtuous.
d. Followers to support the party:
Followers are those who are devoted to certain political principles. They support the expansion and development of a particular political party. The followers of a party propagate the principles and manifesto of the party amid general people, promote the prestige of the party and trust the leaders and cadres. If a party does not have followers, it cannot get people’s vote. Along with principles, leaders and cadres a political party must have its followers. A party can gain power only with the support of the mass of followers.
Four essential elements of political party are discussed above. As the four essential elements are found shaky in the political parties of developing countries, there is political instability in such countries. Political instability hampers the prosperity of the state and people. Therefore, the political parties must run with above mentioned principles.
Political instability is the main reason that developing countries have suffered from. Political parties themselves are the factors that bring instability.
Now we discuss the weakness of the political parties of developing countries.
a. Theoretical aspect of political party:
In developing countries, political parties run with double standard. It means they are guided by one principle and behavior and conduct but they follow just the opposite. They do not stand on their principles as they give more importance to state power than their guiding principles. During election, they go to the people with manifesto prepared on the basis of their guiding principle, but when they come to power, they hardly abide by them. As political parties are adopt in making pretence, fraud and deception, they are exposed before the people. Unless a control mechanism is made, the parties run in disarray. Such activities of the party are against the spirit of anticorruptology.
b. Responsibility of political leaders:
A political party can be strengthened by the good conduct of political leaders. But generally in developing countries, leaders are involved in politics just to seize state power. When leaders become corrupt, the party automatically becomes corrupt. Power-oriented leaders cannot be statesmen. Unless a leader becomes statesman, he/she cannot contribute for prosperity of the state and people. Corrupt leaders act as the foreign stooges and cannot work for the welfare of the state and people.
c. Responsibility of political cadres:
Responsibility of cadres is very important for a political party. In developing countries, those, who are unemployed and cannot run any occupation, get involved in politics and become cadres of a party. They give emphasis to their relation with leaders rather than to political philosophy. They join the party voluntarily or with some payment. They get weekly or monthly salary from the party if the party has provision to pay wage to its cadres. The role of cadres is to attract common people towards their party. They promote the party by convincing the general public. The cadres have very significant role during elections. They are actively involved for the victory of their candidate. For that purpose, they convince the voters, attract, influence, threaten them or even spend money to buy the votes. At that time, no cadre follows political philosophy, policy and morality. Their sole purpose is to defeat the opposition candidates. They have only one intention, i.e. to get victory in election. It is, in fact, beyond the stated role and conduct of political cadres.
d. Responsibility of political followers:
Political followers are just general people. They are attracted by political philosophy, leaders, cadres and their conduct. But in developing countries, the political followers are swinging from one to other sides. They change their conduct according to their relations with leaders, cadres and influence of money. It is a wrong practice in the name of democracy.
In above section, we discussed the situation of political parties in developing countries. Now we have to consider how such situation can be reformed. The political parties should run smoothly on the basis of four essential elements. We have to promote such mechanism to run the parties in keeping with these elements.
Political parties exist only in multiparty democratic system. The party system may either one party or multiparty political system. Only a few countries of the world have practiced one-party system. A large number of countries have practiced multiparty system. A few political parties are in existence in developed countries but, on the other hand, there is a large number of parties in developing countries. The countries are economically and politically weak where several political parties exist. It means there is low economic growth and political instability in such countries. The reason behind these things is neglect of the political philosophy of the parties.
The state should make provision for following policies to control the political parties.
i. Political parties should be service-oriented.
ii. No extortion by political party.
iii. Financial transaction and property of leaders and cadres must be transparent.
iv. No influence and interference from other countries.
v. One-door policy in financial support.
vi. Transparency in election expense.
vii. Provision of threshold in election.
viii. Provision of election system.
ix.. No political interference in bureaucracy.
x. Legal provision to punish leaders and cadres.
i. Political parties should be service-oriented:
It is necessary to develop the feeling of service and welfare in political leaders and cadres. They need to practice politics with such feeling. In fact, the aim of political party is to serve the country and people and the noble aim should be reflected in the conduct of the leaders and cadres.
ii. No extortion by the political party:
Political parties should not extort money from businessmen and others. Parties in developed countries receive donation from such persons. It should be under control. In developing countries, the political parties and their cadres extort money by threatening the businessmen, entrepreneurs and so on. Extortion for running political parties must be banned. The parties extort money for election expense. It should be controlled. Parties drawing from state coffers for vehicles, phones and press materials should be curbed.
iii. Financial transaction and property of leader and cadres must be transparent:
The property statement of leaders and cadres of a political party should be submitted to the state. Leaders and cadres are not occupants. So that, theirs source of income should be transparent.
iv. No influence and interference from other countries:
Some foreign countries or international organizations are interfering in the internal affair of a country. They use their agency and agents for political change as well as religious and cultural conversion of that country. Such activity must be stopped.
v. One-door policy in financial support:
Foreign countries, international non-governmental organizations provide physical and financial support to the country or a particular organization of the country. Such type of support should be provided only through one-door policy.
vi. Transparency in election expense:
There should be legal provision to make the election expense of political parties transparent.
vii. Provision of threshold in election:
Due to the lack of threshold system in election, the number of political parties is large in developing countries. To control the large number of political parties, there should be threshold system. In such system, a party, getting less than five percent of total vote, should not be allowed to participate in next election. Such system minimizes the number of parties and brings credibility in political system.
viii. Provision of election system:
The educational and economic level of the citizens should be analyzed while determining the election system. Direct or indirect election systems are prevalent in different countries. For the exercise of adult franchise, all (at least 90%) people should be politically conscious. Otherwise, the same adult franchise affects the impartial election system adversely.
ix. No political interference in bureaucracy:
The bureaucracy of a state should be free from political interference. Democracy cannot be stable and successful in the country where there is political interference in army, police and civil service of that country. Thus, bureaucracy should always be kept beyond the interference of politics.
x. Legal provision to punish leaders and cadres:
Many countries are developing a trend to punish political leaders and cadres if they commit crimes. There should be strict law to punish them if they are found involved in any illegal act and corruption. The law, justice and the court verdict should be effectively carried out.
As discussed above, a state should make a policy to control the political parties by internalizing the above mentioned facts. The parties are no doubt foundations to run the state affairs. But state affairs should bring them in right tract. There should not be conflict between parties and state as far as their role and responsibility are concerned. They should be operated without interference in each other’s right and duty.
Code of ethics of political party:
Code of ethics is a set of rules and regulations which are formulated to keep the people and organizations within the limitation of good conduct. Code of ethics is formulated to control and operate the target group and organization in disciplined manner. Political parties need to be kept within the sphere of ethics. Code of ethics for political parties should be made according to the current situation. No matter whether it is developing or developed countries, code of ethics must be set for political parties. Many countries have formulated such codes of ethics. But it seems weak in developing countries. As the result of weak rules and regulations, the political parties in such countries run arbitrarily.
The political parties in developing countries are ridiculing the concept of good governance. They neglect law and make decisions in favour of own party, leaders and cadres. They defend illegal acts in the name of political decisions. To control such type of behavior, strict code of ethics for political parties should be set and implemented literally.
Political parties should be nationalist. A political party should be accountable to the state and people. Political parties are the operators of state affair. They should be fully dedicated towards the state. The political parties must not be internationalist. If they are inclined to internationalism, they deceive their country and people. Political philosophy can be adopted from foreign country, but the parties must not have unfair connection with that country. The parties should be responsible to the state and people of the country where they have formed. It is an omnipotent principle for political parties.
Coalition government may be harmful:
If no political party has majority in the legislature, more than one party form a coalition government. This type of government is generally formed in developing countries. In such case, the government becomes unstable. The political parties in government focus on prolonging the tenure of government rather than working for the welfare of the people and the country. Consequently the people and state suffer financially. Coalition government is found harmful for the country and its people. The number of political parties should be low.
There is no future of a party based on insurgency:
The political party emerging from insurgency does not have a prospective future. This type of party cannot work for the welfare of state and people. Insurgency starts at the time when people are trouble and discontent is deep-rooted in the society. Therefore, the political party raised from insurgency cannot work for welfare of the state and people.
Dictatorial aspect of political party:
Internally political parties are dictatorial this type of dictatorship is not exposed outside. In developing countries, the internal dictatorship of political parties is known outside as well. As a result they become unpopular. It is a natural principle. Political parties in developing countries practice extreme dictatorship. It is against the party system. The state should make sufficient legal provisions to control the dictatorial trend of the party. The state affair should have clear policy and law to operate the political parties smoothly and in democratic spirit.
Selection of executives posts:
Executive members should not be selected under personal favour. In developing countries, qualification, expertise, specialization and efficiency are neglected while selecting people for executive posts. The close relatives, blind supporters of leaders, submissive and uneducated persons become dearer to the leaders. Such type of situation should not arise in state affair. This system culture the country and people.
Difference between state and political party:
There is a great difference between state and political party. Political parties themselves engage and operate state affair. But the state has certain principles which the political parties lack. These two seem similar but actually they are different. Their inner principle should be same if we follow the principle of political authority. The state and political parties have same inner principle only in a few countries of the world. The countries, in which state and political parties have similar inner principles, have progressed well. On the contrary, the countries, in which there is difference in inner principles of state and political parties, have not progress. Such countries need to be reformed. The following reforms can be implemented for their reformation.
- Political stability.
- Prosperity of the state.
- Maintaining peace and security.
- Security of the nation and people.
- Economic growth of country and people.
The above five elements are essential elements for political parties. But in developing countries, due to weak performance of political parties, these elements are ignored.
Now, let us see these elements in chart.
From the above chart, we understand that despite the same principles, the state mechanism runs adversely when the political parties lag behind in their principles. How they form a political party is main concern of anticorruptology. There should be a system where the parties run the state affair based on the principles of the state. For this, political parties must be controlled by law, and there should be a culture of operating parties according to the legal provisions. They should run on the basis of the main principles of the state. Otherwise, developing countries cannot progress for a long time. It is necessary to establish nationalist, corruption-free and committed political parties which respect the rule of law.
If the number of political parties is high, the country and the people become poorer and more exploited. So, countries having many political parties are poor, under-developed. Political instability is their feature.
A country can be governed by any political system; but if political parties become a burden on the people, no system will become stable. Therefore, a policy to control the parties should be implemented. Only principled parties should exist.
A political party is divided into two classes: first, Leadership and second, Cadre. These two classes are the candidates of the state power. The cadres are promoted to be the leaders and when they become leaders, they have access to power. There is competition among the cadres and leaders to come to power. Due to this desire for power, different fractions emerge in a party. When fractions are created, division becomes natural and the number of parties increases. This is the bad aspect of any political party. The political party has become a curse on the developing countries as they do politics for power while it is supposed to be done for service.
Aspects of improvement:
The political leadership should be divided into two categories. The first category makes plans and policies according to their philosophy and instructs others to implement that policy. The second category goes to the public with guidance and supports to the first category, participates in the election and reaches the state power. It means if a political party is established by creating two categories i.e. one that goes in the state power and another that doesn’t go in the power, the dividing trend of the parties can be controlled. In this condition, the leaders out of the power evaluate the performances of leaders who are in the power. It promotes check and balance of the power and party can run smoothly and effectively. This principle can be understood as follows.
The system that does not take the policy makers and propounders of the political principles in the power makes the party service-oriented. When top leaders cease to reach the state power, the self-interest and autocratic decision of leaders are controlled. If the leaders in the power make decision against the interest of party and state affair, the leadership of the power will pull them back from the power. It improves the goodwill of the parties and service-oriented feeling is developed.